Jawaban Formatif M1 LA4 Profesional - Hortatory Exposition - Prediksi Ujian Terbaru

Sunday, May 5, 2019

Jawaban Formatif M1 LA4 Profesional - Hortatory Exposition

Jawaban Tugas dan Ujian Formatif dan Sumatif Modul Profesional PPG Dalam Jabatan

Jawaban Formatif M1 LA4 Hortatory Exposition
Modul Profesional PPG Daljab


(1) Use of tobacco products is the nation's deadliest addiction. Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of avoidable death in the United States. More than 400,000 people die prematurely each year from diseases attributable to tobacco use. The toll of deaths attributable to tobacco use is greater than the combined toll of deaths from AIDS, car accidents, alcohol, suicides, homicides, fires, and illegal drugs.

(2) Smoking is the main cause of 87% of deaths from lung cancer, 30% of all cancer deaths, 82% of deaths from pulmonary disease, and 21% of deaths from chronic heart disease. Use of smokeless tobacco is a cause of oral cancer. In a study of women who did not smoke but did use snuff chronically, the risk for oral cancers was 50 times greater than for nonusers.

(3) According to a recent estimate by the Office of Technology Assessment, each smoker who died in 1990 as a result of his or her smoking, on average, would have lived at least 15 additional years if a non-smoker. For the population at large, this premature mortality translates into 6 million years of potential life lost each year.

(4) It is difficult, of course, to calculate a dollar value for the human costs of tobacco-related diseases. The suffering of patients and families resulting from tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is   unquantifiable. Lost productivity and health care expenditures can be quantified, but the magnitude of the estimates depends on a variety of theoretical health care and technical questions, including whether the costs of should be offset by the "savings" in social security expenditures and health care costs not incurred because people died prematurely.

(5) The Office of Technology Assessment put the social cost of smoking in 1990 at $68 billion. This high-end estimate includes $20.8 billion in direct health costs, $6.9 billion in lost productivity attributable to smoking-related disability, and $40.3 billion in lost productivity attributable to smoking-related premature deaths. Whatever its total magnitude, the social cost of smoking is substantial. Even based on conservative assumptions, expected lifetime medical expenditures of the average smoker exceed those of the average non-smoker by 28% for men and 21% for women. Each year, decisions by more than I million youths to become regular smokers commit the health care system to $8.2 billion in extra medical expenditures over their lifetimes.

(6) The nation has a compelling interest in reducing the social burden of tobacco use. This can be accomplished by preventing people from starting to use tobacco and by getting users to quit. The premise of this report is that, in the long run, tobacco use can be most efficiently reduced through a youth-centred policy aimed at preventing children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Moreover, because the prevalence of tobacco use among youths has remained stubbornly constant for 10 years, and may even be rising, a youth-centred prevention policy must be aggressively implemented if tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are to be significantly reduced.






Question 1 (1 point)

It is implied in the text that in the future....

A. the prevalence rate of tobacco use among children remains 10 years

B. the prevalence rate of tobacco use among children might be more or less than 10 years

C the prevalence rate of tobacco use among children is more than 10 years

D. the prevalence rate of tobacco use among children is less than 10 years



Question 2 (1 point)

The deadliest addiction to tobacco use can be reduced by....

A. calculating the number of active smokers

B. spending more money to put on the social cost of smoking reducing the social burden of tobacco use

C. a dollar value for the human cost of smoking

D. preventing people from early start to smoke



Question 3 (1 point)

The text clearly suggests that a youth centered prevention policy be implemented particularly to....

A. prevent youth from using smokeless tobacco

B. assist active smokers to quit smoking

C. reduce the number of people addicting to tobacco use save the national budget for health care

D. save the national budget for health care



Question 4 (1 point)

The word magnitude in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to....

A. amount

B. cigarette

C. victim

D. burden



Question 5 (1 point)

The word morbidity in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to....

A. death

B. wellness

C. addiction

D. disease



Question 6 (1 point)

What is the text mainly talking about?

A. Cigarette smoking is the main cause of death in USA.

B. Lung cancer is the main cause of death.

C. There are many people dying each year because of tobacco use.

D. There are more than 400000 active smokers in USA



Question 7 (1 point)

When you scan read the text, you will know that....

A. The budget for social cost of smoking is the biggest.

B. The budget spent for direct health cost is the biggest.

C. The budget for lost productivity is lowest.

D. The budget for social cost of smoking is the lowest.



Question 8 (1 point)

Which one is NOT TRUE according to the text?

A. It is not easy to quantify the real expenditure to solve tobacco-related diseases.

B. Active smokers could have lived longer if they had not been non-smokers.

C. Non-smokers may live 15 years longer that active smokers.

D. Smoking smokeless tobacco is as dangerous as other types of smoking.



Question 9 (1 point)

Which one is TRUE according to the text?

A. Lung cancer greatly leads to death.

B. Thirty per cent smokers die due to all cancer.

C. Eighty-seven per cent smokers suffer from lung cancer.

D. Smoking leads to illegal use of drugs.



Question 10 (1 point)

Who might be interested to read the text?

A. People who give up to recover from tobacco addiction.

B. People who want to lead a healthy life.

C. People who are severely addicted.

D. People who are dying due to tobacco addiction.


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